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Last Updated on November 23, 2020 by Simnify

ICT is an acronym that stands for Information and Communications Technology

  • Information is data that has been processes to be meaningful to the receiver.
  • Communication isthe process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. It could be verbal or non-verbal.
  • Technology is a general term for the processes by which human beings fashion tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment.

Therefore, ICT can be referred to the convergence (merging) of telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system to transmit information from one place to another.On the other hand, ‘information technology (IT)’ is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems particularly software applications and computer hardware. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and securely retrieve information electronically.Information Technology can also be defined as the processing and distribution of data using computer hardware and software, telecommunications, and digital electronics.Products of ICT include personal Computers (PCs), digital television, email, robots, tablets, ipads, etc.

There are various types of ICTs, these includes;
  • Broadcasting
  • Telecommunication
  • Data Network
  • Information System
  • Satellite Communication

Telecommunications is the exchange of information over significant distances using electronic medium such as telephones, cables, telegraph, etc. it is any system that is used for communicating over distances.
A basic telecommunication system consists of three primary units that are always present in some form:
  • A transmitter that takes information and convert it to a signal
  • A transmission medium, also called the ‘physical channel’, that carries the signal
  • A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information.

(i)    Public Switched Telephone Network(PSTN) (Landline)
(ii)    Mobile Phone System (GSM)
(iii)    Circuit Switched Packet Telephone Systems (CSPT)
(iv)    Satellite Telephone System
(v)    Fixed Wireless Telephone System

PSTN is the network which allows any telephone in the world to communicate. It consists of telephone lines, fibre optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks and any other.

Mobile Phone System (GSM)
This is also known as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM). GSM is a digital cellular phone technology based on time division multiple access (TDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends through a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. The GSM can be used for voice communications, text messaging, data transfer, etc.

Circuit Switched Packet Telephone (CSPT)
Circuit Switching is a telecommunications technology by which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (Circuit) before the nodes may communicate. The circuit remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit.

Satellite Telephone System
This is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites unlike mobile phone that get their signals from a typical mast. An example of this device is Thuraya.
They provide similar functionality to mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and low-bandwidth internet access are supported through most systems.

Fixed Wireless Telephone System
Fixed wireless refers to wireless devices or systems that are situated in fixed locations, such as an office or home, unlike mobile devices like cell phones and PDAs. They do not require cables or wires for transmission of data; they transmit signals through the air. The advantages of fixed wireless include the ability to connect with users in remote areas without the need for laying new cables and the capacity for broadband width that is not impeded by fiber or cable capacities. Examples of fixed wireless telephone system operators in Nigeria are:Multilinks, Starcomms, Zoom and Visafone.

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